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Glossary of Terms: Concussion


Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Injury to the brain resulting from a variety of causes including accidental falls, sports, recreational activities or motor vehicle accidents. One of the following must be noted or reported at the time of injury: any period of loss of consciousness; any loss of memory; any changes in mental state such as confusion, disorientation, or feeling dazed.


A transient impairment of mental function as a result of a blow to the brain. Concussions may be with or without loss of consciousness. Concussions are divided into 3 grades depending on the severity of symptoms. Grade 1- injury results in confusion without loss of consciousness. Symptoms clear within 15 minutes. Grade 2- results in confusion without loss of consciousness. Symptoms last longer than 15 minutes. Grade 3- injury results in loss of consciousness of any duration.

Post Concussion Symptoms

Symptoms that may be present after brain trauma include headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, loss of memory, delayed mental processing speed, fatigue, irritability, balance problems, depression, attention and concentration difficulties, and loss of self-esteem.


Those skills necessary to help with mental processing and functioning. These include attention, concentration, orientation, memory, reasoning, and problem solving.


A disorder in balance and dizziness that often results in falls. A vestibular program is carried out by a licensed physical therapist specializing in vestibular disorders. The goal is to improve balance, decrease dizziness and minimize falls.


A physical cause that results in an injury to the brain and/or other parts of the body. This can include a motor vehicle accident, an accidental fall, a sporting injury, or a recreational injury. Brain trauma results in injury to the brain from one of the above causes.


Emotional symptoms that may develop post concussion. These include changes in mood, impulsivity, agitation, restlessness, reduced self-confidence, reduced self-esteem, anxiety, lack of insight, lack of initiation, and frustration.